**Swift Programming from Scratch**

The Swift Sandbox is integrated, making the exercises interactive. Read more about the book here.

**Chapter 4: Loops**

**Introduction**

Let’s make make some pancakes!

So far we only looked at programs that have a fixed number of steps. For example look the *algorithm* to make a pancake:

```
- put 1/4 cup of batter in the frying pan
- cook for about 2 minutes
- flip and cook for another 2 minutes
- remove the pancake
```

How would the algorithm to make 10 pancakes would look? Would it be much different?

```
10 times do:
- put 1/4 cup of batter in the frying pan
- cook for about 2 minutes
- flip and cook for another 2 minutes
- remove the pancake
```

Loops let you describe repetitive processes. They could have a fixed amount of steps like the example above. Or they could have an unknow number of steps, for example a more realistic algorithm for making pancakes:

```
while you have pancake batter do:
- put 1/4 cup of batter in the frying pan
- cook for about 2 minutes
- flip and cook for another 2 minutes
- remove the pancake
```

`while`

`while`

A `while`

loop performs a set of statements until a condition becomes `false`

.

**while** `condition`

{

`statements`

}

For example in order to `print`

all the numbers from 1 to 10. We need to create a variable with the initial value of 1. Print the value and increase it by one and until it becomes bigger than 10.

```
var i = 1
while i <= 10 {
print(i)
i = i + 1
}
```

`repeat`

`repeat`

`repeat`

loops while a condition is met. The difference between a `while`

and a `repeat`

loop is that the repeat loop evaluates the condition after executing the statements from the loop.

**repeat** {

`statements`

} **while** `condition`

```
var i = 1
repeat {
print(i)
i = i + 1
} while i < 10
```

Both `while`

and `repeat`

are best used in loops where the numbers of stepts is unkown. Take for example the algorithm of converting a number to binary: divide the number by two until it becomes 0. Write the reminders from right to left to get the binary form of the number.

```
var number = 123
var binary = 0
var digit = 1
while number > 0 {
let reminder = number % 2
// add the new digit to the number
binary = digit * reminder + binary
// move the digit to the left
digit *= 10
// remove the last binary digit
number /= 2
}
binary // 1111011
```

`for`

loops

`for`

loopsSwift provides two kinds of loops that perform a set of statements a certain number of times:

The **for-in** loop performs a set of statements for each item in a range or collection.

Swift also provides two range operators `lowerBound...upperBound`

and `lowerBound..<upperBound`

, as a shortcut for expressing a range of values.

```
1...3 // 1, 2, 3
1..<3 // 1, 2
```

**for** `value`

**in** `range`

{

`statements`

}

```
// prints 1-10
for i in 1...10 {
print(i)
}
// prints 0-9
for i in 0..<10 {
print(i)
}
```

If `lowerBound`

is greater than `upperBound`

you code will crash:

```
// this will crash - don't do it! :)
for i in 10...1 {
print(i)
}
```

If you want to loop on a range in reverse order you can use the `reversed`

range method:

```
// this will print the numbers from 10 to 1
for i in (1...10).reversed() {
print(i)
}
```

**stride**

`stride`

is a function from the swift standard library that returns the sequence of values `start`

, `start + stride`

,`start + 2 * stride`

, … `end`

) where last is the last value in the progression that is less than end.

The `stride`

function works with any kind of number:

```
stride(from: 1, to: 10, by: 2) // 1, 3, 5, 7, 9
stride(from: 1, to: 2, by: 0.1) // 1.0, 1.1 ... 1.9
```

Let’s take for example a program that counts from 1 to 10 by 3:

```
for i in stride(from: 1, to: 10, by: 3) {
print(i)
}
```

You can use `stride`

to create decreasing sequences if the `stride`

parameter is negative:

```
for i in stride(from: 3, to: 1, by: -1) {
print(i)
}
// prints: 3 2 1
```

`print`

and terminators

`print`

and terminatorsFor the drawing exercises below you will need use the `terminator`

parameter for the `print`

function. The`terminator`

refers to the thing that is printed at the end. The default terminator is the new line character `"\n"`

.

`print(value)`

will print the value and a new line`print(value, terminator: "")`

will print the value

```
print("BAT", terminator: "") // prints BAT
print("MAN", terminator: "") // prints MAN
print("") // prints a newline character
// BATMAN
print("BAT")
// BAT
print("MAN")
// MAN
```

**Executing a statement multiple times**

Sometimes you just want to execute some statements multiple times but don’t care about having an index. A swift convention in `for`

loops is to use `_`

as the loop variable name when you don’t intend to use the variable in the loop.

For examplet to to print “Hello World” 5 times you can use:

```
for _ in 1...5 {
print("Hello World")
}
```

Naming your loop variable `_`

is useful because you immediately tell that the variable is not used in the loop.

**4.1 Chalkboard**

Write a program that writes “I will not skip the fundamentals!” `N`

times.

Input:

`var N = 3`

Output:

```
I will not skip the fundamentals!
I will not skip the fundamentals!
I will not skip the fundamentals!
```

Input:

`var N = 5`

Output:

```
I will not skip the fundamentals!
I will not skip the fundamentals!
I will not skip the fundamentals!
I will not skip the fundamentals!
I will not skip the fundamentals!
```

The solution to a similar problem was shown in the theory, you can use either `for`

or `while`

to solve this problem.

```
var N = 10
// with a while loop
var times = 0
while times < N {
print("I will not skip the fundamentals!")
times = times + 1
}
```

```
var N = 10
// with a for loop
for _ in 1...N {
print("I will not skip the fundamentals!")
}
```

**4.2 Squares**

Print the first `N`

square numbers. A square number, also called perfect square, is an integer that is obtained by squaring some other integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself (ex. `1`

, `4`

= `2`

* `2`

, `9`

= `3`

* `3`

…).

Input:

`var N = 2`

Output:

```
1
4
```

Input:

`var N = 5`

Output:

```
1
4
9
16
25
```

```
var N = 10
var cnt = 1
while cnt <= N {
print(cnt * cnt)
cnt = cnt + 1
}
```

**4.3 Powers of 2**

Print the powers of `2`

that are less than or equal to `N`

.

Input:

`var N = 5`

Output:

```
2
4
```

Input:

`var N = 100`

Output:

```
2
4
8
16
32
64
```

The first power of `2`

is `2`

. Given a power of `2`

, `power`

, the next power of `2`

is `power * 2`

.

```
var N = 10
var power = 2
while power <= N {
print(power)
power = power * 2
}
```

**4.4 Alternative Counting**

Write all the numbers from 1 to `N`

in alternative order, one number from the left side (starting with one) and one number from the right side (starting from `N`

down to `1`

).

Input:

`var N = 4`

Output:

```
1
4
2
3
```

Input:

`var N = 9`

Output:

```
1
9
2
8
3
7
4
6
5
```

Use two variables to remember the `left`

and `right`

index that you need to print next.

There’s a special case you’ll have to handle when `N`

is odd.

```
var N = 5
var left = 1
var right = N
while left < right {
print(left)
print(right)
left += 1
right -= 1
}
if left == right {
print(left)
}
```

**4.5 Square**

Given an integer `N`

draw a square of `N x N`

asterisks. Look at the examples.

Input:

`var N = 1`

Output:

```
*
```

Input:

`var N = 2`

Output:

```
**
**
```

Input:

`var N = 3`

Output:

```
***
***
***
```

Try printing a single line of `*`

first.

You can use `print("")`

to print an empty line.

```
var N = 4
for i in 1...N {
for j in 1...N {
print("*", terminator: "")
}
print("")
}
```

**4.6 Rectangle**

Given two integers `N`

and `M`

draw a rectangle of `N x M`

asterisks. Look at the examples.

Input:

```
var N = 1
var M = 3
```

Output:

```
***
```

Input:

```
var N = 2
var M = 2
```

Output:

```
**
**
```

Input:

```
var N = 3
var M = 7
```

Output:

```
*******
*******
*******
```

You’ll need to change the bounds of one of the loops.

```
var N = 3
var M = 7
for i in 1...N {
for j in 1...M {
print("*", terminator: "")
}
print("")
}
```

**4.7 Triangle**

Given an integer `N`

draw a triangle of asterisks. The triangle should have `N`

lines, the `i`

-th line should have `i`

asterisks on it.

Input:

`var N = 1`

Output:

```
*
```

Input:

`var N = 3`

Output:

```
*
**
***
```

Input:

`var N = 4`

Output:

```
*
**
***
****
```

First you’ll want to print a single `*`

. Then you’ll want to print 2 `*`

, then 3 `*`

. How many stars will you print at the `i-th`

iteration?

```
var N = 3
for i in 1...N {
for j in 1...i {
print("*", terminator: "")
}
print("")
}
```

**4.8 Pyramid**

Given an integer `N`

draw a pyramid of asterisks. The pyramid should have `N`

lines. On the **i**-th line there should be`N-i`

spaces followed by `i*2-1`

asterisks.

Input:

`var N = 1`

Output:

```
*
```

Input:

`var N = 2`

Output:

```
*
***
```

Input:

`var N = 3`

Output:

```
*
***
*****
```

Input:

`var N = 4`

Output:

```
*
***
*****
*******
```

How many stars do you have to print at each iteration?

How many spaces do you have to print at each iteration?

What’s a general formula for the sequence: `1`

, `3`

, `5`

,`7`

?

```
var N = 3
for i in 1...N {
for j in 0..<(N-i) {
print(" ", terminator: "")
}
for j in 1...2*i-1 {
print("*", terminator: "")
}
print("")
}
```

**4.9 Rhombus**

Given an integer `N`

draw a rhombus of asterisks, like the ones in the examples.

Input:

`var N = 1`

Output:

```
*
```

Input:

`var N = 2`

Output:

```
*
***
*
```

Input:

`var N = 3`

Output:

```
*
***
*****
***
*
```

Input:

`var N = 4`

Output:

```
*
***
*****
*******
*****
***
*
```

Notice that the upper half of the rhombus is the pyramid from the previous exercise.

The second half is the pyramid only inverted and with the last line removed.

```
let N = 4
for i in 1...N {
for j in 0..<(N-i) {
print(" ", terminator: "")
}
for j in 1...2*i-1 {
print("*", terminator: "")
}
print("")
}
if (N > 1) {
for j in 2...N {
var i = N - j + 1
for k in 0..<(N-i) {
print(" ", terminator: "")
}
for k in 1...2*i-1 {
print("*", terminator: "")
}
print("")
}
}
```

**4.10 Aztec Pyramid**

Given an integer `N`

draw a Aztec pyramid of asterisks, like the ones in the examples.

Input:

`var N = 1`

Output:

```
**
**
```

Input:

`var N = 2`

Output:

```
**
**
******
******
```

Input:

`var N = 3`

Output:

```
**
**
******
******
**********
**********
```

You’ll have to draw each line twice.

How many stars are on each line?

What’s the general term for the sequence `2`

, `6`

, `10`

, `14`

, … ?

```
let N = 3
for i in 1...N {
for _ in 1...2 {
for _ in 0..<(N-i) {
print(" ", terminator: "")
}
for _ in 1...2*i-1 {
print("**", terminator: "")
}
print("")
}
}
```

**4.11 Chess Board**

Given an integer `N`

draw a chess board of size `N x N`

. Each line of the chess board should have spaces and number signs(`#`

) alternating. A space represents a white cell and the number sign a black one. The chess board should be bordered using `+`

, `-`

and `|`

like in the examples below.

Input:

`var N = 1`

Output:

```
+-+
|#|
+-+
```

Input:

`var N = 3`

Output:

```
+---+
|# #|
| # |
|# #|
+---+
```

Input:

`var N = 5`

Output:

```
+-----+
|# # #|
| # # |
|# # #|
| # # |
|# # #|
+-----+
```

Input:

`var N = 8`

Output:

```
+--------+
|# # # # |
| # # # #|
|# # # # |
| # # # #|
|# # # # |
| # # # #|
|# # # # |
| # # # #|
+--------+
```

First consider how to draw the top and bottom border.

How can you alternate between ” ” and “#” ? Consider the remainder(`%`

) when dividing the indices of the loops by `2`

.

```
let N = 8
// prints the top border
print("+", terminator: "")
for _ in 1...N {
print("-", terminator: "")
}
print("+")
for i in 1...N {
// prints the left border
print("|", terminator: "")
for j in 1...N {
if i % 2 == j % 2 {
print("#", terminator: "")
} else {
print(" ", terminator: "")
}
}
// prints the right border a a new line
print("|")
}
// prints the bottom border
print("+", terminator: "")
for _ in 1...N {
print("-", terminator: "")
}
print("+")
```

**4.12 Fibonacci**

Write a program that prints the first `N`

Fibonacci numbers. The first two Fibonacci numbers are `1`

, the rest of the elements are the sum of the previous two. The first seven numbers are `1`

, `1`

, `2`

, `3`

, `5`

, `8`

and `13`

.

Input:

`var N = 3`

Output:

```
1
1
2
```

Input:

`var N = 6`

Output:

```
1
1
2
3
5
8
```

Use two variables `a = 1`

and `b = 0`

. At each step `a`

should be the *i*-th Fibonacci number, and `b`

the *i-1*-th.

```
var N = 10
var a = 1
var b = 0
for _ in 1...N {
print(a)
var tmp = a + b
b = a
a = tmp
}
```

**4.13 Leap Years**

Write a program that prints the next `N`

`leap years`

starting with `leapYear`

. A `leap year`

is a year containing an extra day. It has `366 days`

instead of the normal `365 days`

. The extra day is added in February, which has `29 days`

instead of the normal `28 days`

. `Leap years`

occur every `4`

years, `2012`

was a leap year and 2016 will be a `leap year`

.

Except that every `100`

years special rules apply. Years that are divisible by `100`

are not `leap years`

if they are not divisible by `400`

. For example `1900`

was not a `leap year`

, but `2000`

was.

Input:

```
var N = 6
// the current leap year
var leapYear = 2016
```

Output:

```
2016
2020
2024
2028
2032
2036
```

Input:

```
var N = 3
// the current leap year
var leapYear = 1996
```

Output:

```
1996
2000
2004
```

Keep in mind that the variable `leapYear`

is a leap year to begin with. Given a leap year how can you generate the next leap year ?

```
var N = 5
// the current leap year
var leapYear = 2016
// the number of leap years that were printed so far
var cnt = 0
// until we print N years
while cnt < N {
// print the next leap year
print(leapYear)
// increase the counter
cnt += 1
// go to the next leap year
leapYear += 4
if leapYear % 100 == 0 && leapYear % 400 != 0 {
leapYear += 4
}
}
```

**4.14 Reverse**

You are given a `number`

. Print the number with the digits in reversed order.

Input:

`var number = 12345`

Output:

```
54321
```

Input:

`var number = 23432`

Output:

```
23432
```

Input:

`var number = 1000`

Output:

```
0001
```

To get the last digit use the `%`

operator (the reminder to `10`

is the last digit). To get the number without the last digit divide by `10`

.

```
var number = 1234
while number > 0 {
print(number % 10, terminator: "")
number /= 10
}
```

**4.15 GCD**

You are given two numbers `a`

and `b`

. Find and print the greatest common divisor of `a`

and `b`

.

The greatest common divisor of `a`

and `b`

is the largest number that divides both `a`

and `b`

.

Input:

```
var a = 24
var b = 18
```

Output:

```
6
```

Input:

```
var a = 21
var b = 13
```

Output:

```
1
```

Input:

```
var a = 12
var b = 36
```

Output:

```
12
```

The smallest divisor of `a`

and `b`

is `1`

. And the greatest value can be at most `min(a, b)`

.

Find the minimum of `a`

and `b`

and store it in `maxDiv`

.

Write a for loop that goes from `1`

to `maxDiv`

and check each number.

```
var a = 24
var b = 18
var maxDiv = a
if b < maxDiv {
maxDiv = b
}
var gcd = 1
for i in 1...maxDiv {
if (a % i == 0) && (b % i == 0){
gcd = i
}
}
print(gcd) // 6
```

**4.16 Prime numbers**

You are given a `number`

. Print `"prime"`

if the number is a prime and `"not prime"`

otherwise.

A number is a prime if it has **exactly** 2 distinct divisors (1 and itself).

Input:

`var number = 2`

Output:

```
prime //2 is only divisible by 1 and 2
```

Input:

`var number = 3`

Output:

```
prime //3 is only divisible by 1 and 3
```

Input:

`var number = 15`

Output:

```
not prime //15 is divisible by 1,3,5 and 15
```

Input:

`var number = 17`

Output:

```
prime //17 is only divisible by 1 and 17
```

Input:

`var number = 1`

Output:

```
not prime //1 is only divisible by 1 (needs exactly 2 divisors to be a prime, only has 1)
```

Count the number of divisors of the input number.

```
var number = 17
var numberOfDivisors = 0
for i in 1...number {
if number % i == 0 {
numberOfDivisors += 1
}
}
if numberOfDivisors == 2 {
print("prime")
} else {
print("not prime")
}
```

**4.17 Factoring numbers**

You are given a `number`

. Decompose `number`

into prime factor and write it as an expression(see examples).

Input:

`var number = 24`

Output:

```
24 = 2 * 2 * 2 * 3
```

Input:

`var number = 12`

Output:

```
12 = 2 * 2 * 3
```

Input:

`var number = 15`

Output:

```
15 = 3 * 5
```

Input:

`var number = 7`

Output:

```
7 = 7
```

Input:

`var number = 4`

Output:

```
4 = 2 * 2
```

Dividing a number by one of it’s factors will result in a smaller number. A number can have a prime factor divisor multiple times, ex: `8 = 2 * 2 * 2`

```
var number = 10
print("\(number) = ", terminator: "")
var isFirst = true
for i in 2...number {
if number % i == 0 {
while (number % i == 0) {
number /= i
if isFirst {
isFirst = false
} else {
print(" * ", terminator: "")
}
print(i, terminator: "")
}
}
}
```

**4.18 Free of squares**

Find all numbers free of squares less than or equal to `N`

. A number is free of square if it cannot be divided by any square number except `1`

.

Input:

`var N = 10`

Output:

```
1
2
3
5
6
7
10
```

Input:

`var N = 30`

Output:

```
1
2
3
5
6
7
10
11
13
14
15
17
19
21
22
23
26
29
30
```

```
var N = 10
print(1)
for i in 2...N {
var isFree = true
var a = i
for j in 2...a {
if a % j == 0 {
var put = 0
while (a % j == 0) {
a /= j
put += 1
}
if put > 1 {
isFree = false
}
}
}
if isFree {
print(i)
}
}
```

**Swift Programming from Scratch**

Read more about the book here.

Feel free to ask any questions in the comments bellow.

Are while loops used that often? I’m only familiar with javascript, I seem to see for loops almost always used. I’ve never seen a do…while loop in scripts.

It’s not like there’s a correct or better way to loop Each one has it’s purpose, know them and use them when you need

thks dude, nice job, it help me a lot and other newbie like me ( oops, i just assume:) )

but can you post solution for all twist above pls ? cos i think a newbie like me also want to improve the logic thinking further more the excercise :). i will delight

It’s a challenge – I don’t want to ruin the fun

Could you please just give us a hint?

on what problem?

lol, my brain was going get heat up as thinking about twist challenge :).

btw

why dont you create a function for seeing twist solution for people can not work it out like me :).

ex: if “click ” = 1000 times then print the line ( twist solution ) or “page view” = 100 time then u can see the twist solution.

just in case some brain get pop out

Newbie over here.

I’m trying to understand what the difference is when writing,

–n

n–

I think your question is “what is the difference between ++n/–n and n++/n–“.

n++ means take the value of n and then inclement it by one.

var n = 1

var a = n++

// n = 2

// a = 1

++n means inclement the value of n by one then take that value.

var n = 1

var a = ++n

// n = 2

// a = 2

In exercise 4.5 could you explain what i and j represent, and also how you determine vertical from horizontal rows when drawing such pictures? By the way this website has been extremely helpful!

in exercise 4.5 we don’t need i and j – they are the vertical and horizontal index respectively. you draw this kind of shapes one row at a time – each time we call println we add a new line character.

hello, answer to 4.16,

if number % i == 0 {

numberOfDivisors += 1

}

}

if numberOfDivisors == 2

are you able to elaborate? I’m not understanding why we check if number divided by i has zero remainders to then add 1, if I’m not mistaken numberofdivisors += 1 means 0 + 1, how is it 2 afterwards ?

thanks

Hi Andre!! Thank you so much for your supremely helpful exercises and explanations :).

I was performing exercise 4.3, “Powers of 2”, and I noticed that your solution is a little bit off. Your solution only prints “2”, “4”, and “8”, when it should print the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 (if you are printing all of the powers of two, 2^1 ~ 2^10). If you are to use a “while” statement, a solution that prints all of the appropriate values would look something like this:

var powerOfTwo = 10

var ctr = 1

var twoMulti = 1

while ctr <= powerOfTwo {

println(2 * twoMulti)

++ctr

twoMulti *= 2

}

However I've found that using a "for-in" loop can make the code more elegant (read "short"):

var powersOfTwo = 10

var twoMulti = 2

for _ in 1…powersOfTwo {

println(twoMulti)

twoMulti *= 2

}

I'm not an expert so there might be an even better way to do it :-/. Anyway, thank you again for your super helpful guide!!

The exercise asks to print the powers of two less than or equal to N. Not the first N powers of two. For N = 10. 2, 4 and 8 are less than 10. 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 and 1024 are greater than 10.

Hope this helps!

If that’s the case, then aren’t your example outputs incorrect?

In example 1, For N=2 you have the output as “2, 4”. However 4 is not less than or equal to 2, so the only output that should appear is 2.

Similarly, in example 2, for N=6 you have the output of “2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64”, when the only outputs less than 6 (thus the only outputs that should appear) are “2” and “4”.

(btw I don’t mean any disrespect, I’m just trying to understand the exercise. :)!)

You are right, the examples are wrong! We updated the exercise. Thank you!

For exercise 4.7, perhaps you could note that attempting to print the string “\” (backslash) will not work normally, and that the programmer needs to type print(“\\”) in order to print the special character \.

… Unless your goal is to have your visitors Google-search the answer for themselves :-p.

Good point !! Will definitely do that!

Hey again, I have another question.

For 4.15, why is it necessary to compare a and b and find the one with the lower value?

Below is the code I used, and it seems to me that it’s the same as yours, functionally, but shorter. Are you comparing a and b to make sure that the computer is not spending extra cycles on looking for a gcd that it won’t find (because it will eventually surpass the lower of the two values if you pick the higher value for the for loop)? Is there any other reason to compare the values before putting it through the for loop?

var one = 24

var two = 18

var final = 1

for var divisor = 1; divisor <= one; ++divisor {

if one % divisor == 0 && two % divisor == 0 {

final = divisor

}

}

print(final)

Thank you in advance for the clarification :)!

it does the same thing. yours can make “extra” steps if

`one`

is greater than`two`

For 4.17 Twist, because you don’t have an if statement for the exponents/powers, your solution prints i^1 instead of just i when the value of “put” is 1!

If that is intended, then please ignore my comment! :-p

it was intended – sorry for the late reply!

Hi, first off great work on the exercise platform. Paired with Treehouse it’s really helped me hammer in the basic concepts.

Secondly, I was able to solve 4.5, albeit with a different solution from yours. Would just like to know if there are any downsides to this solution vs yours. For example, not having arrived at the same solution as yours may indicate that I haven’t fully grasped the concepts yet? Thanks in advance. Here is my solution:

var N = 4

// your code here

var area = N * N

var counter: Int = 1

for var numOfasterisk = 1; numOfasterisk <= area; ++numOfasterisk {

print("*")

if counter % N == 0 {

print("\n")

}

counter = counter + 1

}

Cool solution!

the point of these exercises was to practice nested loops in a visual way – if you understand nested loops you can move on

Hi Andrei,

Many thanks to your effort in helping us learn swift! I have come up another solution to Alternative Counting problem below. Hope it is helpful to other learners as well.

var N = 5

var leftOdd = 1

var rightEven = N

for i in 1…N {

if i % 2 != 0 {

println(leftOdd)

++leftOdd

} else {

println(rightEven)

–rightEven

}

}

Cool solution!

Hi Andrei,

As for problem 4.5 Square, the solution can be even more simpler by omitting i and j:

var N = 4

var asterisk = “*”

// using for in loop

for _ in 1…N { // print each line of * four times

for _ in 1…N { // print * 3 times on one line

print(asterisk)

}

println() // print * with a line break

}

ps. an suggestion: if you can add students’ less simpler solutions to compare with the simpler solutions, it may also show the comparison and enhance comprehension of the concepts.

Where would we be able to find the solutions to the TWIST problems?

In your imagination!

Try to solve them – they are pretty similar to the original problems.

Good luck!

haha…ok… working on them.. also 4.17 uses an isFirst variable as a boolean. It later gets used in the loop to write the (“*”) after each number. Is there anything on the lessons that addresses or explains this? I see what it’s doing but I’m having a hard time grasping how it does it and so I’m not really sure how to use it.

Thanks

Hey Andrei,

I started with the book and exercise platform a few weeks ago. I have to say I have been enjoying it. I’m about half way through the exercises in chapter 4 and I’m getting stuck on these exercises. Do you have any recommendations for thinking about these problems? Also, do you recommend any additional resources for learning loops? Thanks!

A lot of people seem to need more practice at this point in the book. I’ll add more exercises to the platform soon.

I learned to code a loooong time ago – the only thing I can do is google “practice loops in swift” and give you the links.

One thing I would recommend is that you take the solution to the problem you are stuck and copy paste it. Then change the code a bit – see how the result changes. I’ve learned a lot by just playing around.

Hey Alex:

I too am getting stuck in the exercises from around halfway through Ch. 4, and came back to the comments to see if anyone else was in a similar situation.

Were you able to find any additional resources (tutorials, etc.) that helped you work through these exercises and learn loops?

Thanks!

I’ve learned programming a long time ago and unfortunately I can’t recommend any swift content for that.

In case you have an iPad I suggest you play this game – its the first game programmed completely on an iPad. Or this game on your PC.